Fibronectin type 3 domain
SMART accession number:SM00060
Description: One of three types of internal repeat within the plasma protein, fibronectin. The tenth fibronectin type III repeat contains a RGD cell recognition sequence in a flexible loop between 2 strands. Type III modules are present in both extracellular and intracellular proteins.
Interpro abstract (IPR003961):

Fibronectins are multi-domain glycoproteins found in a soluble form in plasma, and in an insoluble form in loose connective tissue and basement membranes [(PUBMED:3780752)]. They contain multiple copies of 3 repeat regions (types I, II and III), which bind to a variety of substances including heparin, collagen, DNA, actin, fibrin and fibronectin receptors on cell surfaces. The wide variety of these substances means that fibronectins are involved in a number of important functions: e.g., wound healing; cell adhesion; blood coagulation; cell differentiation and migration; maintenance of the cellular cytoskeleton; and tumour metastasis [(PUBMED:3031656)]. The role of fibronectin in cell differentiation is demonstrated by the marked reduction in the expression of its gene when neoplastic transformation occurs. Cell attachment has been found to be mediated by the binding of the tetrapeptide RGDS to integrins on the cell surface [(PUBMED:2466295)], although related sequences can also display cell adhesion activity.

Plasma fibronectin occurs as a dimer of 2 different subunits, linked together by 2 disulphide bonds near the C terminus. The difference in the 2 chains occurs in the type III repeat region and is caused by alternative splicing of the mRNA from one gene [(PUBMED:3780752)]. The observation that, in a given protein, an individual repeat of one of the 3 types (e.g., the first FnIII repeat) shows much less similarity to its subsequent tandem repeats within that protein than to its equivalent repeat between fibronectins from other species, has suggested that the repeating structure of fibronectin arose at an early stage of evolution. It also seems to suggest that the structure is subject to high selective pressure [(PUBMED:6317187)].

The fibronectin type III repeat region is an approximately 100 amino acid domain, different tandem repeats of which contain binding sites for DNA, heparin and the cell surface [(PUBMED:3780752)]. The superfamily of sequences believed to contain FnIII repeats represents 45 different families, the majority of which are involved in cell surface binding in some manner, or are receptor protein tyrosine kinases, or cytokine receptors.

GO function:protein binding (GO:0005515)
Family alignment:
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There are 158940 FN3 domains in 48392 proteins in SMART's nrdb database.

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