HOLI

Ligand binding domain of hormone receptors
HOLI
SMART accession number:SM00430
Description:
Interpro abstract (IPR000536):

Steroid or nuclear hormone receptors constitute an important superfamily of transcription regulators that are involved in widely diverse physiological functions, including control of embryonic development, cell differentiation and homeostasis. The receptors function as dimeric molecules in nuclei to regulate the transcription of target genes in a ligand-responsive manner. Nuclear hormone receptors consist of a highly conserved DNA-binding domain that recognises specific sequences (IPR001628), connected via a linker region to a C-terminal ligand-binding domain. In addition, certain nuclear hormone receptors have an N-terminal modulatory domain (IPR001292). The ligand-binding domain acts in response to ligand binding, which caused a conformational change in the receptor to induce a response, thereby acting as a molecular switch to turn on transcriptional activity [(PUBMED:14973393)]. For example, after binding of the glucocorticoid receptor to the corticosteroid ligand, the receptor is induced to perform functions ranging from nuclear translocation, oligomerisation, cofactor/kinase/transcription factor association, and DNA binding [(PUBMED:15193451)]. The ligand-binding domain is a flexible unit, where the binding of a ligand stabilises its conformation, which in turn favours coactivator binding to modify receptor activity [(PUBMED:15661830)]; the coactivator can bind to the activator function 2 (AF2) site at the C-terminal end of the ligand-binding domain [(PUBMED:15728727)]. The binding of different ligands can alter the conformation of the ligand-binding domain, which ultimately affects the DNA-binding specificity of the DNA-binding domain. In the absence of ligand, steroid hormone receptors are thought to be weakly associated with nuclear components. This entry represents the C-terminal ligand-binding domain.

GO process:steroid hormone mediated signaling pathway (GO:0043401), regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent (GO:0006355)
GO component:nucleus (GO:0005634)
GO function:steroid hormone receptor activity (GO:0003707), sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity (GO:0003700)
Family alignment:
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There are 3692 HOLI domains in 3684 proteins in SMART's nrdb database.

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