Transket_pyr

Transketolase, pyrimidine binding domain
Transket_pyr
SMART accession number:SM00861
Description: Transketolase (TK) catalyzes the reversible transfer of a two-carbon ketol unit from xylulose 5-phosphate to an aldose receptor, such as ribose 5-phosphate, to form sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3- phosphate. This enzyme, together with transaldolase, provides a link between the glycolytic and pentose-phosphate pathways. TK requires thiamine pyrophosphate as a cofactor. In most sources where TK has been purified, it is a homodimer of approximately 70 Kd subunits. TK sequences from a variety of eukaryotic and prokaryotic sources show that the enzyme has been evolutionarily conserved. In the peroxisomes of methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha, there is a highly related enzyme, dihydroxy-acetone synthase (DHAS) (also known as formaldehyde transketolase), which exhibits a very unusual specificity by including formaldehyde amongst its substrates.
Interpro abstract (IPR005475):

Transketolase EC 2.2.1.1 (TK) catalyzes the reversible transfer of a two-carbon ketol unit from xylulose 5-phosphate to an aldose receptor, such as ribose 5-phosphate, to form sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3- phosphate. This enzyme, together with transaldolase, provides a link between the glycolytic and pentose-phosphate pathways. TK requires thiamine pyrophosphate as a cofactor. In most sources where TK has been purified, it is a homodimer of approximately 70 Kd subunits. TK sequences from a variety of eukaryotic and prokaryotic sources [(PUBMED:1567394), (PUBMED:1737042)] show that the enzyme has been evolutionarily conserved. In the peroxisomes of methylotrophic yeast Pichia angusta (Yeast) (Hansenula polymorpha), there is a highly related enzyme, dihydroxy-acetone synthase (DHAS) EC 2.2.1.3 (also known as formaldehyde transketolase), which exhibits a very unusual specificity by including formaldehyde amongst its substrates.

1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXP synthase) [(PUBMED:9371765)] is an enzyme so far found in bacteria (gene dxs) and plants (gene CLA1) which catalyzes the thiamine pyrophosphoate-dependent acyloin condensation reaction between carbon atoms 2 and 3 of pyruvate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to yield 1-deoxy-D- xylulose-5-phosphate (dxp), a precursor in the biosynthetic pathway to isoprenoids, thiamine (vitamin B1), and pyridoxol (vitamin B6). DXP synthase is evolutionary related to TK. The N-terminal section, contains a histidine residue which appears to function in proton transfer during catalysis [(PUBMED:1628611)]. In the central section there are conserved acidic residues that are part of the active cleft and may participate in substrate-binding [(PUBMED:1628611)]. This family includes transketolase enzymes EC 2.2.1.1 and also partially matches to 2-oxoisovalerate dehydrogenase beta subunit P37941 EC 1.2.4.4. Both these enzymes utilise thiamine pyrophosphate as a cofactor, suggesting there may be common aspects in their mechanism of catalysis.

Family alignment:
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There are 8034 Transket_pyr domains in 8034 proteins in SMART's nrdb database.

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